The present country of Uganda was forged by the British between 1890 and 1926. The name of Uganda was derived from the ancient Kingdom of Buganda.
The earliest inhabitants of Uganda were the Stone -Age People. These people were gradually absorbed or replaced in the first millennium A.D. by the incoming agriculturists and pastoralists. At the time of the coming of the British, there were over thirty ethnic and cultural groups in Uganda. These ethnic communities could conveniently be divided into four broad linguistic categories namely; the Bantu, the Luo, the Atekerin, and the Sudanic.
The Bantu occupy the Southern half of the country and, taken together, they constitute over 50 percent of Uganda’s total population. They were the earliest group to come to Uganda and they Comprise; the Baganda, the Banyoro, the Basoga, The Banyankole, the Bakiga, the Bafumbira, the Batooro, the Bakonjo, the Bamba, the Batwa, the Banyole, the Basamia- Bagwe and the Baggwere. Generally, they occupy the east, central, west, and southern Uganda.
The second category is the Atekerin people. This group is variously referred to as the Para-Nilotics, the Lango, or the Nilo- Hamites. These are found in the north, the east, and northeastern Uganda. The group constitutes the Langi, the Karamajong, the Iteso, the Kakwa, and the Kumam. They trace their origins to Ethiopia and are said to have been one people. Through migrations, they came to settle in different parts of Uganda and they have developed particular characteristics that tend to distinguish them from one another. For instance, the Langi lost their Ateker language and culture and spoke Luo.
The final category is the Sudanic speakers of West Nile. This group comprises the Madi, the Lugbara, the Okebu, the Bari, and the Metu. They trace their origin to Sudan but their cultures and language indicate that they have become completely detached from their places of origin.
Source: Uganda Travel Guide